What factors affect the shrinkage of fabrics?
Fabric shrinkage is a phenomenon in which the length or width of textiles changes in a certain state through washing, dehydration, drying and other processes. The difference between shrinkage and original size is the shrinkage of the fabric. The shrinkage of fabrics involves different types of fibers, the structure of the fabric, the different external forces that the fabric is subjected to, and so on. Synthetic fibers and blended fabrics have a small shrinkage rate, followed by cotton fabrics, and silk fabrics have a larger shrinkage. The biggest ones are viscose fibers and artificial cotton fabrics.
Objectively speaking, cotton fabrics have some problems of shrinkage and fading. The key is the rear finishing. Therefore, the general fabric will be pre-shrinked. It is worth noting that the pre-shrinkage treatment does not mean that it does not shrink, but it means that the shrinkage rate is controlled within 3% to 4% of the national standard. Therefore, when choosing fabrics, in addition to selecting the quality, color and pattern of the fabric, the shrinkage of the fabric should also be understood.
Shrinkage of general fabrics:
Cotton 4%-10%; Chemical fiber 4%-8%; Cotton polyester 3.5%-5 5%; Natural white cloth 3%; Poplin 3-4.5%; Twill 4%; Labor cloth 10%; Artificial cotton: 10%; Artificial Silk 5-9%; Tencel fabric 2-4%; Modal fabric 3-6%.
Factors affecting fabric shrinkage：
1. Raw materials
Different raw materials, different fabric shrinkage. Generally speaking, for fibers with high hygroscopicity, the fiber expands after immersion in water, the diameter increases and the length decreases, the shrinkage rate is large. If the viscose fiber has a water absorption rate of up to 13%, and the synthetic fiber fabric has poor moisture absorption, its shrinkage rate is small.
2. The density is different, the fabric shrinkage rate is also different.
If the density in the latitude and longitude direction is similar, the shrinkage in the latitude and longitude direction is also close. For fabrics with large warp density, the warp shrinkage will be larger. Conversely, for fabrics with weft density greater than warp density, weft shrinkage will be greater.
3. Yarn count
The thickness of the yarn is different, and the shrinkage of the fabric is also different. The shrinkage rate of the fabric with thick yarn count is larger, and the shrinkage rate of the fabric with fine yarn count is smaller.
4. Production process
Different production process, the fabric shrinkage rate is also different. Generally speaking, during the weaving, dyeing and finishing process of fabrics, the fiber must be stretched many times, the processing time is long, and the shrinkage rate of the fabric with large tension is large, and the reverse is small.
5. Fiber composition
Compared with synthetic fibers (such as polyester and acrylic), natural plant fibers (such as cotton and hemp) and plant regenerated fibers (such as viscose) are easy to absorb moisture and expand, so the shrinkage rate is large.
6. Fabric structure
Generally speaking, the dimensional stability of woven fabrics is better than knitted fabrics; the dimensional stability of high-density fabrics is better than that of low-density fabrics. In woven fabrics, the shrinkage of plain weave fabrics is generally less than flannel fabrics.
7. Production and processing process
Because the fabric is inevitably stretched by the machine in the process of dyeing, printing, and finishing, there is tension on the fabric. However, the fabric is easy to release tension after encountering water, so we will find that the fabric shrinks after washing. In the actual process, we generally use pre-shrinkage to solve this problem.
8. Washing and nursing process
Washing care includes washing, drying and ironing. Each of these three steps will affect the shrinkage of the fabric. For example, the dimensional stability of hand-washed samples is better than that of machine-washed samples, and the temperature of washing will also affect its dimensional stability. Generally speaking, the higher the temperature, the worse the stability. The drying method of the sample also has a greater influence on the shrinkage of the fabric. Commonly used drying methods include drip drying method, metal mesh tiling method, hanging drying method and tumble drying method. Among them, the drip drying method has little effect on the size of the fabric, while the rotary arch drying method has a great effect on the size of the fabric, and the remaining two are centered.
In addition, choosing a suitable ironing temperature according to the composition of the fabric can also improve the shrinkage of the fabric. Tianyu Textile produces all kinds of workwear fabrics, with good quality and low price. It supports international shipping and customization. It has a minimum order of 2000 meters. The larger the quantity, the lower the price.